Marie Michael Library
Citizen-Led Accountability: Strategies and Tools
Citizen-Led Accountability online course, November 2 – December 18, 2020
Module 1: Setting The Foundation: Introductions And Key Concepts
- Benequista, N. & Gaventa, J. (2011). Seeing like a citizen. In Blurring the boundaries: Citizen action across states and societies (pp. 4-5). IDS.
- Dion, R. (2020, June 18). Making governance more than good. Transparency & Accountability Initiative.
- Gaventa, J. (2010). ‘Seeing like a citizen’: Re-claiming citizenship in a neoliberal world. In A. Fowler & C. Malunga (Eds.), NGO management: The Earthscan companion (pp. 59-69). Earthscan.
- UNESCAP. (2009). What is good governance?
- VeneKlasen, L. & Miller, V. (2002). Democracy and citizenship. In A new weave of power, people and politics: The action guide for advocacy and citizen participation (pp. 25-37). Practical Action. (StFX only)
Module 2: Analyzing The Context For Citizen-Led Accountability
- Country context assessments
- RTI rating measures the strength of the legal framework for the right to access information held by public authorities based on 61 indicators.
- Monitor: Tracking civic space is published by CIVICUS.
- Corruption perceptions index, from Transparency International, scores and ranks countries/territories based on how corrupt a country’s public sector is perceived to be by experts and business executives.
- Democracy index 2019 is produced by the Economist Intelligence Unit. It provides a snapshot of the state of world democracy for 165 independent states and two territories.
- 2020 World press freedom index is published by Reporters Without Borders.
- Global Fund for Women. (2015, April 29). How does Global Fund for Women measure social change? [Video]. Youtube. (3:51 min.)
- Koester, D. (2015). Gender & power (Concept brief no. 4). Developmental Leadership Program. (381K pdf)
- Miller, V., VeneKlasen, L., Reilly, M., & Clark, C. (2006). Power matrix. In Making change happen: Power: concepts for revisioning power for justice, equality and peace (pp. 13). Just Associates. (347K pdf)
- Miller, V., VeneKlasen, L., Reilly, M., & Clark, C. (2006). Three visions of vital power. In Making change happen: Power: concepts for revisioning power for justice, equality and peace (pp. 8). Just Associates. (347K pdf)
- National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS). (2018, June 22). Kimberlé Crenshaw: What is intersectionality? [Video]. Youtube. (1:54 min.)
- TED-Ed. (2014, November 4). How to understand power – Eric Liu [Video]. Youtube. (7:01 min.)
- van Es, M., Guijt, I., & Vogel, I. (2015). Power analysis. In Theory of change: Thinking in practice: a stepwise approach (pp. 95-97). Hivos. (2.0 Mb pdf)
- Dion, R. (2020, September 17). Time to rethink…on regions, governance, and indices. Transparency & Accountability Initiative.
- Civicus Monitor. (2020). Civicus freedoms under threat during the Covid-19 pandemic: A snapshot of restrictions and resilience (Research brief). Civicus. (934K pdf)
- Gaventa, J. (2006). Finding the spaces for change: a power analysis. IDS Bulletin, 37(6), 23-33. (120K pdf)
- Gender at Work’s framework highlights the interrelationship between gender equality, organizational change and institutions held in place by power dynamics within communities.
- Hovland, I. (2005). Stakeholder analysis (352K pdf). In Successful communication: a toolkit for researchers and civil society organisations (pp. 8-9). ODI. (539K pdf)
- O’Meally, S. C. (2013). Mapping context for social accountability: A resource paper. World Bank.
- Powercube, understanding power for social change.
- Shahrokh, T. (2015). Towards more inclusive strategies to address gender-based violence (Policy briefing issue 104). IDS.
- TEDSalon Berlin. (2014, June). Jeremy Heimans: What new power looks like [Video]. TED Talks. (15 min.)
- TEDWomen. (2016, October). Kimberlé Crenshaw: The urgency of intersectionality [Video]. Ted Talks. (18:42 min.)
- TEDxEuston. (2012, December). Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie: We should all be feminists [Video]. Ted Talks. (29:20 min.)
Module 3: Citizen-Led Accountability And The Public Governance Cycle
- PG Exchange toolkit provides information on nine different categories of participation governance practices and includes more than 30 approaches and tools.
- Action for Empowerment and Accountability Programme (A4EA) explores how social and political action can contribute to empowerment and accountability in conflict and violent settings, with a particular focus on Egypt, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nigeria and Pakistan.
- Civicus. (2015). Participatory governance toolkit.
- Global Partnership for Social Accountability’s Knowledge repository.
- Participedia harnesses the power of collaboration in response to new forms of participatory politics and governance around the world.
Module 4: Gender-Responsive Citizen-Led Accountability In Practice
- Schneider, K. (2006). Handout: Toolkit 1. In Manual for training on gender responsive budgeting (pp. 80-83). GTZ. (796K pdf)
- Stephenson, M.-A. (2018). A guide to gender-responsive budgeting. Oxfam.
- AFD – Agence Française de Développement. (2018, December 13). Ahmed Berrada: Gender responsive budgeting, major importance to achieve gender equality in Morocco [Video]. Youtube. (1:31 min.)
- AFD – Agence Française de Développement. (2018, December 13). Jihane Habti El Idrissi: Make morocco’s experience an international reference [Video]. Youtube. (2:02 min.)
- ANSA-EAP. (2016, January 16). The CSC part 1 [Video]. Youtube. (0:52 min.)
- ANSA-EAP. (2016, January 16). The CSC part 2.2 [Video]. Youtube. (2:30 min.)
- Bradshaw, S., Linneker, B., & Overton, L. (2016). Gender and social accountability: Ensuring women’s inclusion in citizen-led accountability programming relating to extractive industries (Research backgrounder). Oxfam.
- CARE Malawi. (2013). The community score card (CSC): A generic guide for implementing CARE’s CSC process to improve quality of services. Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere. (6.84 Mb pdf)
- Escher, J. (2018, January 17). Community score cards: A powerful tool to improve public services. Civil Society Academy.
- Futurehealthsys. (2017, April 10). DCHSB Social Accountability Event Feb 8 2017 – SSDI Community Scorecard Video Malawi [Video]. Youtube. (4:32 min.)
- Joshi, A. (2019, November 8). How community score cards are helping police in Nepal tackle gender-based violence. Development, Care Insights.
- Kirk, G. (2015, May 6). CARE community score card animation [Video]. Youtube. (2:34 min.)
- Makhulo, J. (2018, August 30). Community scorecard – Mani [Video]. Youtube. (7:52 min.)
- Odinga, R. K. (2019, January 14). Community scorecard challenges [Video]. Youtube. (6:40 min.)
- Stotsky, J.G. (2017). Gender budgeting in sub-Saharan Africa. GREAT Insights, 6(2).
- Talking Drum Studios – SFCG Sierra Leone. (2020, June 4). Community score card impact video [Video]. Youtube. (4:10 min.)
- Talking Drum Studies – SFCG Sierra Leone. (2020, June 4). Community score card process video [Video]. Youtube. (14:16 min.)
- TEDx Talks. (2015, July 29). Gender responsive budgeting: Nicole Farnsworth: TEDxPrishtinaWomen [Video]. Youtube. (15:57 min.)
- TGNP. (2020, September 2). TGNP: Makala… [Video]. Youtube. (13:03 min.)
- TVE Asia Pacific. (2010). People power: Part 2 of 4: health sector community scorecard by CARE Malawi [Video]. Youtube. (3:37 min.)
- UN Women. (2017, February 23). What is gender responsive budgeting [Video]. Youtube. (4:37 min.)
- UN Women. (2012, March 15). Equality path: Planning and budgeting with a gender lens [Video]. Youtube. (15:16 min.)
- UN Women, (2011, July 21). Gender-responsive budgeting: Rwanda [Video]. Youtube. (21:11 min.)
- Unifem. (2009, October 1). Gender-responsive budgeting: Morocco [Video]. Youtube. (7:02 min.)
- Wild, L., Wales, J., & Chambers, V. (2015). CARE’s experience with community score cards: What works and why? ODI.
Module 5: Transforming Accountability In Your Context
- Gaventa, J., & McGee, R. (2013). The impact of transparency and accountability initiatives. Development Policy Review, 31(s1), s3-s28. https://doi.org/10.1111/dpr.12017
- Schatz, F. (2013). Fighting corruption with social accountability: A comparative analysis of social accountability mechanisms’ potential to reduce corruption in public administration. Public Administration and Development, 33(3), 161-174. https://doi.org/10.1002/pad.1648 (StFX only)
- Tembo, F., & Chapman, J. (2014). In search of the game changers: Rethinking social accountability (Discussion paper). ODI.
Module 6: Strategic Citizen-Led Accountability: Negotiating Change And Maximizing Impact
- Fox, J. (2016). Taking scale into account in transparency and accountability initiatives (Research summary). IDS.
- Halloran, B. (2015). Strengthening accountability ecosystems: A discussion paper. Transparency and Accountability Initiative.
- Malena, C. (2009). Building political will for participatory governance: An introduction. In C. Malena (Ed.), From political won’t to political will: Building support for participatory governance (pp. 3-30). Kumarian Press.
- Safier, C., Wakefield, S., Harvey, R., & Rewald, R. (2019). Oxfam’s guide to feminist influencing. Oxfam International. (25.78 Mb pdf)
- Sharp, G. (1973). 198 methods of nonviolent action.
- VeneKlasen, L., & Miller, V. (2007). Politics and advocacy. In A new weave of power, people & politics: The action guide for advocacy and citizen participation (pp. 11-24). Practical Action. (575K pdf)
Module 7: Moving Forward: Proposals, Learning, And Looking Ahead
- CIVICUS. (2010). Transparency. In Turning principles into practice: A guide to legitimacy, transparency and accountability (pp. 10-11). CIVICUS.
- The Global Standard is a reference standard that civil society organisations can use to strengthen their accountability practices. It focuses on putting people at the center of CSOs’ decision-making processes.
- Mango. (2010). Accountability to beneficiaries checklist: How accountable is your organisation to its beneficiaries?
- Resilient Roots explores whether organizations who are more accountable and responsive to their primary constituents are more resilient against external threats.
Videos: Selected Social Accountability Practices
- Participatory Planning
- Chavez, E. (2009). Participatory urban planning in the Philippines [Video]. Youtube. Part 1 (4:10 min.) and Part 2 (4:56 min.)
- ICLEI CBC. (2017). Crafting better cities with nature.
- ICLEICBC. (2018, June 1). Crafting better cities with nature: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia [Video]. Youtube. (4:19 min.)
- Participatory Budgeting
- TVE Asia Pacific. (2010). Participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre, Brazil [Video]. Youtube. (5:08 min.)
- PBP. (2015). Real money, real power: Participatory budgeting [Video]. Vimeo. (4:13 min.)
- IOPD. (2017). Participatory budgeting for migrant workers.
- OIDP. (2018, December 18). IOPD award 2018: Participatory budgeting for migrant workers in Taoyuan [Video]. Youtube. (13:11 min.)
- Independent Budget Analysis
- Fundar Mexico. (2012, August). Citizens’ budgets in Guatemala and Venezuela [Video]. Youtube. (9:53 min.)
- Social Justice Coalition. (2016, April 26). Kak struggle: Cape Town’s unfair budget [Video]. Youtube. (10:27 min.)
- Social Audit
- Social Audit Network. (2018, September 4). Engaging government differently: Social audits and service delivery [Video]. Youtube. (10:12 min.)
- International Budget Partnership. (2019, March 19). Growth and innovation of social audits in South Africa [Video]. Youtube. (11:36 min.)
- Community Scorecard
- CUTS International. (2010). Using community scorecards to monitor the NGRs in India [Video]. Youtube. (7:49 min.)
- Citizen Report Card
- ANSA-EAP. (2014, November 27). 03 Citizen report card (English) [Video]. Youtube. (3:28 min.)
- Kenya Water and Sanitation Program. (2010). Water and sanitation citizen report card in Kenya [Video]. Youtube. (12:53 min.)
- SDPI Pakistan. (2012, June 26). Social accountability in education through citizen’s report card [Video]. Youtube. (2:27 min.)
- Community-Based Monitoring
- CutsInt. (2010, September 4). Social accountability in action: Engaging communities in health services [Video]. Youtube. (9:54 min.)
- ANSA-EAP. (2011). ANSA EAP tales, tools and techniques of social accountability [Video]. Youtube. (30:31 min.). Community monitoring in the Philippines, G-Watch, school building monitoring and road quality monitoring. (First 19 minutes only)
- Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2009). It’s our money: Where’s it gone? Social audit by MUHURI in Kenya [Video]. Youtube. (18:09 min.)
- Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2011). Ask Your Government! initiative [Video]. Youtube. (5:34 min.)
- ICT Governance. (2011). Participatory budgeting in Democratic Republic of Congo [Video]. Youtube. (6:43 min.)
- International Budget Partnership. (2013). Open Budget Survey 2012 [Video]. Youtube. (4:31 min.)
- International Budget Partnership. (2015). Open budgets: Transform lives [Video]. Youtube. (6:01 min.)
- ISfilmcollective. (2012). What is PBNYC? Participatory budgeting in NYC [Video]. Youtube. (5:44 min.)
- Patel, D. (2010). Participatory planning process [Video]. Youtube. (9:52 min.)
- TVE Asia Pacific. (2010). Social audit by MKSS in India [Video]. Youtube. (7:19 min.)
- World Bank. (2009). India: Citizen report card improves urban transport [Video]. Youtube. (20:37 min.)
- Ackerman, J. M. (2005). Social accountability in the public sector: A conceptual discussion (Participation and civic engagement paper no. 82). World Bank. (693K pdf)
- ActionAid. (2011). Just and democratic local governance: Accountability: quality and equity in public service provision (ELBAG handbook series). ActionAid. (1.03 Mb pdf)
- Affiliated Network for Social Accountability in East Asia and the Pacific (ANSA-EAP). (n.d.). The tools of social accountability stocktaking: Getting to know the lay of the land: scanning, scoping, mapping and profiling. (997K pdf)
- Agarwal, S., Post, D., & Venugopal, V. (2013). How-to notes: Citizen report cards: monitoring citizen perspectives to improve service delivery. World Bank.
- Ahman, R. (2008). Governance, social accountability and the civil society. Journal of Administration & Governance, 3(1). (116K pdf)
- Asian Development Bank. (2007). Improving local governance and service delivery: Citizen Report Card learning tool kit.
- Blair, H. (2011). Gaining state support for social accountability. In S. Odugbemi & T. Lee (Eds.), Accountability through public opinion: From inertia to public action (pp. 37-51). World Bank.
- Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. (2020). Alternative federal budget 2020. CCPA.
- Chene, M. (2011). Good practice in strengthening transparency, participation, accountability and integrity (U4 Expert Answer, no. 274). Anti-Corruption Resource Centre.
- Citizens Foundation encourages citizens’ participation in governance.
- Civicus. (2020). National civic space ratings. Interactive world map provides live updates from civil society around the world, track threats to civil society and learn about ways in which our right to participate is challenged.
- Civicus. (2016). Enabling environment. Refers to the conditions within which civil society operates.
- Cornwall, A., & Gaventa, J. (2001). Bridging the gap: Citizenship, participation and accountability (PLA notes no. 40). IDS. (22K pdf)
- Das, A. (2013). How do we know we are making a difference? Challenges before the practitioner of community monitoring processes in assessing progress and evaluating impacts. Centre for Health and Social Justice. (1.05 Mb pdf)
- Democracy and governance resources from the Communication Initiative Network.
- Economist Intelligence Unit. (2016). Democracy index.
- Flynn, A. (2016). Participatory budgeting – Not a one-size-fits-all approach. Free and open access from Osgoode Digital Commons. (605K pdf)
- Fox, J. (2014). Social accountability keywords 2.0. Presented to the Social Accountability core course, World Bank, March 5. (240K pdf)
- Fox, J., & Aceron, J. (2016). Doing accountability differently: A proposal for the vertical integration of civil society monitoring and advocacy (U4 issue no. 4). Anti-Corruption Resource Centre.
- Fox, J., & Halloran, B., et al. (Eds.). (2016). Connecting the dots for accountability: Civil society policy monitoring and advocacy strategies. Report from international workshop, Washington, DC, June 18-20. Transparency & Accountability Initiative.
- Freedom House. (2020). Freedom in the world report. Years available: 1978-current.
- Global right to information rating map. (2020). Centre for Law and Democracy.
- Golding, S., et al. (2012). Tax justice advocacy: A toolkit for civil society. Christian Aid.
- Gopal Jayal, N. (2008). New directions in theorising social accountability?. IDS Bulletin, 38(6), 105-112.
- Grandvoinnet, H., Aslam, G., & Raha, S. (2015). Opening the black box: The contextual drivers of social accountability. World Bank.
- Grant, E., & MacArthur, T. (2008). Accountability briefing note. DFID. (353K pdf)
- Guénéheux, D., & Bottomley, A. (Eds.). (2014). Accountability for civil society by civil society: A guide to self-regulation initiatives. CIVICUS. (1.94 Mb pdf)
- Hakikazi Catalyst, REPOA & TGNP. (2008). Follow the money: A resource book for trainers on public expenditure tracking in Tanzania. Local Government Working Group of the Policy Forum. (2.75 Mb pdf)
- “Haz Parte” (Be A Part of It) Project is a participatory budget programme in the municipality of La Serena in Chile. The programme is an instrument for social and citizen participation in identifying needs that are most important to be resolved in the municipality.
- Kafakoma, R., et al. (2005). Local government accountability (Power tools series). IIED. (143K pdf)
- Leavy, J. (2014). How useful are RCTs in evaluating Transparency & Accountability projects? IDS.
- Luttrell, C., et al. (2007). The power cube explained (Empowerment note 3). ODI. (252K pdf)
- McGee, R. (2011). Apparently transparent: Does accountability deliver? The Broker, 25, 14-18.
- McGee, R., & Gaventa, J. (2011). Shifting power? Assessing the impact of transparency and accountability initiatives (Working paper 383). IDS. (200K pdf)
- McNeil, M., & Malena, C. (Eds.). (2010). Social accountability in Africa: An introduction. In Demanding good governance: Lessons from social accountability initiatives in Africa (pp. 1-28). World Bank. (2.26 Mb pdf)
- Neuman, L. (2016). The right of access to information: Exploring gender inequities. IDS Bulletin, 47(1), 83-97.
- Newell, P., & Wheeler, J. (2006). Making accountability count (Policy briefing issue no. 33). IDS.
- Odugbemi, S., & Lee, T. (Eds.). (2011). Accountability through public opinion: From inertia to public action [eBook edition]. World Bank.
- The Participatory Budgeting Project is being implemented in Kenya by Fahamu, a network for social justice. A documentary and manual are available for viewing.
- Ramkumar, V. (2008). Our money, our responsibility: A citizens’ guide to monitoring government expenditures. International Budget Project.
- Ramkumar, V., & Shapiro, I. (Eds.). (2010). Guide to transparency in government budget reports: Why are budget reports important, and what should they include? International Budget Partnership. (573K pdf)
- Reuben, W., & Levy-Benitez, M. (2003). The role of civic engagement and social accountability in the governance equation (Social development note no. 75). World Bank.
- Shahrokh, T., & Lopez-Franco, E. (2015). Achieving meaningful accountability for people living in poverty and marginalisation (Policy briefing no. 2). IDS.
- Shukla, A., & Saha Sinha, S. (2014). Reclaiming public health through community-based monitoring: The case of Maharashtra, India. Queen’s University.
- SUPRO: Campaign for Good Governance, People’s Republic of Bangladesh. This organization strives to incorporate good governance into all aspects of life.
- Tembo, F. (2013). Rethinking social accountability in Africa: Lessons from the Mwananchi Programme. ODI. (2.65 Mb pdf)
- Thampi, G. K. (2017, April 18). Social accountability from the trenches: 6 critical reflections. GPSA.
- Tools4dev.org. (2014). Stakeholder analysis matrix template.
- Transparency International. (2019). Corruption perceptions index 2019.
- UN-HABITAT. (2004). 72 frequently asked questions about participatory budgeting (Urban governance toolkit series). (831K pdf)
- UN-HABITAT. (2008). Participatory budgeting in Africa: A training companion with cases from eastern and southern Africa: Volume I: concepts and principles. UN-HABITAT. (1.42 Mb pdf)
- World Bank. (2012, April 10). World Bank announces Open Access policy for research and knowledge, launches Open Knowledge Repository [Press release].